Hope is no simple or unambiguous concept. Some hopes are small and passive, such as hoping for good weather, whereas others are grand and ambitious, such as hopes for a better world or to provide a good life for one’s children. This hope project aims to develop a measure of hope that is both encompassing of the diversity in experiences of hope, without losing sight of the core characteristics of hope. This is not an easy task, but luckily many great thinkers have gone before us. Here, you can find some of the sources that have influenced this project.


Much has been written about the meaning, determinants and effects of hope, by philosophers, poets, artists and scientists. Here, we have collected some of the sources that have influenced this project.


“to hope for an outcome is to desire (be attracted to) it, to assign a probability somewhere between 0 and 1 to it, and to judge that there are sufficient reasons to engage in certain feelings and activities directed toward it” (Adrienne M. Martin)